Plagiarism ranges from the un-referenced use of published and unpublished ideas of others to submission under “new” authorship of a complete paper, sometimes in a different language. It may occur at any stage of planning, research, writing, or publication: it applies to print and electronic versions. All sources should be disclosed, and if large amounts of other people’s written or illustrative material are to be used, permission must be sought.

Responsibilities of  Authors

The Nigerian Stethoscope does not encourage plagiarism in any form. Every author should do a thorough check of the article content before submitting it to the Nigerian Stethoscope for publication. This can be done using a number of online plagiarism checker available online. For further information on how authors can protect themselves against inadvertent plagiarism, detect all forms of plagiarism and protect themselves from plagiarism, please visit  

Policy on Plagiarism

All articles submitted to the Nigerian Stethoscope will be checked using the free Grammaly plagiarism detection software. For any case of suspected plagiarism, the Nigerian Stethoscope follows the guidelines contained in the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) flowcharts (