All manuscripts must be submitted in MS Word® or RTF format using Times New Roman font size 10 and single-spacing. Headings must be in Bold. All the named authors must have approved the final manuscript. Pages should be numbered consecutively in the midline of the bottom of the page. The following contributions are accepted (word counts exclude abstracts, tables and references):

  1. Original research (Between 1000 and 3500 words):
  2. Letters to the Editor (Up to 500 words):
  3. Case reports/series (500 - 1000 words):
  4. Review articles (Up to 5000 words).


Format Title page: All articles must have a title page with the following information and in this particular order:

  • Title of the article;
  • Surname, initials, and affiliation of each author;
  • The name, postal address, e-mail address and telephonic contact details of the corresponding author;
  • At least 5 keywords.

Please do not use capital letters for all the letters in headings and names, but stick to the normal use of capital letters.

Abstract. All articles should include an abstract. The structured abstract for an Original Research article should be between 200 and 250 words and should consist of four paragraphs labelled "Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions". It should briefly describe the problem or issue being addressed in the study, how the study was performed, the major results, and what the authors conclude from these results. The abstracts for other types of articles should also not be longer than 250 words, and need not follow the structured abstract format.


Keywords. All articles should include keywords. Up to five words or short phrases should be used. Use terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of Index Medicus when available and appropriate. Key words are used to index the article and may be published with the abstract.

Acknowledgements. In a separate section, acknowledge any financial support received or possible conflict of interest. This section may also be used to acknowledge substantial contributions to the research or preparation of the manuscript made by persons other than the authors.

References. Cite references in numerical order in the text using Vancouver superscript format. In the References section, references must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are cited, not alphabetically. The style for references should follow the format set forth in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals; prepared by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Abbreviations for journal titles should follow Index Medicus format. While we encourage authors to use reference manager software for referencing for ease and accuracy of references, the authors must remove all reference manage codes from the document before submitting the document. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of all references. Personal communications and unpublished data should not be referenced. If essential, such material should be incorporated in the appropriate place in the text. When citing URLs to web documents, place in the reference list, and use following format: Authors of document (if available). Title of document (if available). URL. (Accessed [date]).

Tables. Tables should be self-explanatory, clearly organised, and supplemental to the text of the manuscript. Each table should include a clear descriptive title on top and numbered in Arabic numerals (1, 2, etc.) in order of its appearance in the text. Tables must be inserted in the correct position in the text. Headings should be placed above columns, left justified. Only horizontal lines should be used within a table and there should not be any vertical line. Tables must be embedded into the text at the relevant place (not placed at the end of the document). Tables can span the two columns. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain in footnotes all nonstandard abbreviations. For footnotes use the following symbols, in sequence: *,†,‡,§,||,,**,††,‡‡. Please see the Journal template and the accompanying Instruction for a step by step guide to creating tables that spans two columns. The Nigerian Stethoscope manuscript template has an example of a table formatted in the accepted style. It also contains further instructions to help authors format tables in their manuscripts.


Figures. All figures must be inserted in the appropriate position of the electronic document. Symbols, lettering, and numbering (in Arabic numerals e.g. 1, 2, etc. in order of appearance in the text) should be placed below the figure, clear and large enough to remain legible after the figure has been reduced. Figures must have clear descriptive titles.

Photographs and images: If photographs of patients are used, either the subject should not be identifiable or use of the picture should be authorised by an enclosed written permission from the subject. The position of photographs and images should be clearly indicated in the text. Electronic images should be saved as either jpeg or png files. All photographs should be scanned at a high resolution (300dpi, print optimised). Provision is made to upload individual images on the website as supplementary files. Please number the images appropriately.


Permission. Permission should be obtained from the author and publisher for the use of quotes, illustrations, tables, and other materials taken from previously published works, which are not in the public domain. The author is responsible for the payment of any copyright fee(s) if these have not been waived. The letters of permission should accompany the manuscript. The original source(s) should be mentioned in the figure legend or as a footnote to a table.

Review and action. Manuscripts are initially examined by the editorial staff and are usually sent to independent reviewers who are not informed of the identity of the author(s). When publication in its original form is not recommended, the reviewers' comments (without the identity of the reviewer being disclosed) may be passed to the first author and may include suggested revisions. Manuscripts not approved for publication will not be returned. Please see Policy Statements of the Journal for further description of the journal’s peer review process


Ethical considerations. Papers based on original research must adhere to the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects; and must specify from which recognised ethics committee approval for the research was obtained.

Conflict of interest. Authors must declare all financial contributions to their work or other forms of conflict of interest, which may prevent them from executing and publishing unbiased research. [Conflict of interest exists when an author (or the author's institution), has financial or personal relationships with other persons or organizations that inappropriately influence (bias) his or her opinions or actions.]* The following declaration may be used if appropriate: "I declare that I have no financial or personal relationship(s) which may have inappropriately influenced me in writing this paper."

Manuscript template. Manuscripts for submission must be drafted in double column format. Authors should download the Journal template in MS-Word .docx format and use it to prepare the final submission to the journal for review. Only articles prepared with the template will be accepted for review. Instructions for using the template are provided on the template itself, or as a separate download.


Submissions and correspondence. All submissions must be made through the website,, or on rare occasions, through email to: and

*Modified from: Davidoff F, et al. Sponsorship, Authorship, and Accountability. (Editorial) JAMA

Download Authors instructions in PDF format

Download Nigerian Stethoscope Manuscript Templates

Download Template in docx format